Chicago uses two types of citations:

  • The most commonly used type is Notes and Bibliography:
    • Citations are placed in footnotes
    • Bibliography lists all your sources at the end of your work
  •  The other type is Author-date and Reference List
    • Parenthetical in-text citations
    • Reference list of all cited sources at the end of your work

To cite a source using Chicago style Notes and Bibliography, you need to place a superscript number, beginning with ¹ at the end of a sentence or clause, after all the punction. This superscript number then corresponds to a numbered footnote at the bottom of that page, or endnote at the bottom of the final page, where you include information such as author, title, date and page numbers. You can also include additional information without detracting from the main text –  but try to keep the extra information brief and concise.

You also have the option of using Full Notes or Short Notes. Full notes give the full reference in the first footnote for that resource. This means that you do not have to include a Bibliography at all. Subsequent footnotes for the same resource take Short Note form. If only Short Notes are being used, you include a Bibliography.

This is an example of a Short Note:

“Shakespeare could not have chosen a more propitious time to come of age.”²


2. Bryson and Gosney, Shakespeare, 101

This is an example of a Full Note:

According to Bryson and Gosney, Shakespeare came into his stregth at the best possible time.³


3. Bill Bryson and Joy Gosney, Shakespeare : The Illustrated Edition (Hammersmith, London: Harper Press, 2012), 101.

If the resource does not have an author and you are using a Full Notes, start the citation in the footnote with the title of the resource. If you are using Short Notes and a Bibliography, list the organization that published it as the author.

Chicago Style also uses the (author, date) format for in-text citations. This means that you include the author’s surname followed by the date of publication in parentheses at the end of your quote or paraphrase. If you are using a resource that has fixed page numbers, include the page number after the date.

For example:

“Shakespeare could not have chosen a more propitious time to come of age.”(Bryson and Gosney, 2012, 101)

According to Bryson and Gosney, Shakespeare came into his strength at the best possible time (Bryson and Gosney, 2012, 101).


Chicago Style uses Bibliographies when you use Footnotes or End Notes, and Reference Lists when you use Author-Date citations.


These appear at the end of your work, with the heading ‘Bibliography’ centered and in bold at the top of the page. The items are listed alphabetically by the first item, and if the reference for an item is longer than one line, the rest of the lines for that item are indented. Only include items you have cited in your work.

Chicago Style generally includes the following information for a book:

  1. Author (Last Name, First Name)
    1. Include other contributers here in the same format, however if there are more than  2 authors, use
  2. Book Title : subtitle
  3. Edition
  4. Place of Publication : Publisher
  5. Year
  6. DOI / URL

For example:

Bryson, Bill, and Joy Gosney. Shakespeare : The Illustrated Edition. Hammersmith, London: Harper Press, 2012.

For digital resources, referencing is more difficult as there are so many variables. References for a basic website gernerally include:

  1. Author (Last Name, Surname.)
    1. If there is no author, list the organization or website name and then don’t repeat it later in the citation
  2. “Page Title.”
  3. Website name.
  4. Month, Day, Year.
    1. If no publication date is listed, use Accessed and the date instead
  5. URL

This example has no author listed, and the site name is the same as the organization:

Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. “William Shakespeare Biography.” , 2000.

Reference Lists

When using Author-Date citations, you must include a Reference List at the end of your work. The only differences between a Bibliography (Footnote or Endnote style citations) and a Reference List (Author-Date style citations) are the heading and the placement of the date.

The heading ‘References’ is centered and bold at the top of the Reference Page.

The publication date is placed immediatley after the author’s name, allowing the reader to easily find a reference based on the information provided in the in-text citations.

For example:

Bryson, Bill, and Joy Gosney. 2012. Shakespeare : The Illustrated Edition. Hammersmith, London: Harper Press.

Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. 2000.“William Shakespeare Biography.”

Citing images, tables, graphs etc. (just the basics to start)

When using pictures and graphs to illustrate your argument, you still need to cite and reference each item. Include the image or graph before or after the paragraph where it is mentioned and then refer to it using in-text citations in your paragraph. (e.g. “see fig. 1”)

Below each figure, place a caption providing the figure number followed by a period, a reference to the source, unless you created the image yourself, and any relevant information the reader might require.

Chicago Notes & Bibliography style;

Image references shgould then be placed in your Footnotes or Endnotes, and then omit them from your Bibliography. Only include a reference in your bibliography if you refer to the image often or it is essential or central to your argument / discussion.

References for images (not including images you have created yourself), graphs, tables etc. generally include:

  1. The creator of the image – Surname, First name
  2. The title of the image or a brief description
  3. Format
  4. Website name
  5. Month Day, Year of creation
  6. URL

Example of a Full Note or Bibliography entry:


1. Asian Dragon, Emquartier Mall, Bangkok, personal photograph by author, January 16, 2021.

This is an example of a Short Note:

2. Eng, Dragon in Asia

Author Date style citations:

Images should still be placed at the beginning or end of a paragraph and labeled as a Figure. An intext citation for an image consists of the author’s last name and the year the image was created.

Reference list entries are similar to the Full note or Bibliography entry, except that the date comes immediately after the author/s name.

For images you have created yourself:

Figure 1. Asian Dragon


For images you have source online:

Figure 2. Dragon in Asia.

For more in depth information about APA citations and references, check out these resources: