All work submitted for the IB Diploma must be academically honest, which means acknowledging any materials or ideas used.

For a full explanation of referencing, see the official IBO website on “Effective Citing and Referencing“.

Note that the IBO does not require one particular referencing style (e.g., MLA, APA, or Chicago).  Instead they only expect you to be clear and consistent when citing sources, such that any reader can easily distinguish between your words/work and that of others you have used.

However, NIST expects you to learn to follow one of the major referencing styles, as that will be required if you go on to university.

  • MLA (Modern Language Association) — this is the Author-Page style of inline citations
  • APA (American Psychological Association) — this is the Author-Date-Page style of inline citations
  • Chicago — this is the style that uses footnotes at the bottom of the page

NB:  Footnotes are only used to cite material in the Chicago style.  The other two styles — MLA and APA — use in-text or inline citations.  This means the citation is given in the body of the text when it is used.

MLA is the default referencing style for all students in all subjects, however, for the IB Diploma program, some departments choose a different style.  Check with your teacher.